Parliament hinges are used on doors where you need them to go flat against the wall when open.  The cut away design minimizes the appearance of the hinge hanging out of the closed door.

They
are made from solid brass in ten finishes and come in 5 sizes: extra small 100 x100 x 4mm, small 100 x 124 x 4mm, medium 100 x 150 x 4mm, large 100 x 175 x 4mm and extra large 100 x 200 x 4mm